Printed circuit boards (PCBs), known as the "mother of electronic products", are transmission bridges that carry electronic components and connect circuits. They are printed boards made of insulating substrates and conductors, and are designed to form point to point connections and printed components on a universal substrate according to predetermined designs.
Classified by the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain, the upstream mainly consists of raw materials, the midstream mainly consists of copper clad boards and printed circuit boards, and the downstream mainly consists of electronic product applications.
Upstream of the industrial chain
Upstream raw materials include copper foil, resin, fiberglass cloth, wood pulp, ink, etc. Among them, copper foil, resin, and fiberglass cloth are the three main raw materials.
Copper foil is the main raw material for manufacturing copper clad panels, and the price of copper foil depends on the price changes of copper, which is greatly influenced by international copper prices. Copper foil is a anionic electrolytic material that precipitates on the substrate layer of a circuit board. It serves as a conductive material for conducting and dissipating heat in the PCB.
Glass fiber cloth is also a raw material for copper clad laminates, woven from glass fiber yarn and can be divided into thick cloth, thin cloth, ultra-thin cloth, and special specification cloth according to thickness. Approximately 40% (thick plate) and 25% (thin plate) of the cost of copper clad laminate. Glass fiber cloth plays a role in increasing strength and insulation as a reinforcing material in PCB manufacturing.
Synthetic resin is used as an adhesive to bond glass fiber cloth together in PCB manufacturing. At present, the production capacity of glass fiber cloth in Chinese Mainland and Taiwan has accounted for about 70% of the world. The specifications of fiberglass cloth are relatively single and stable, and the price is easily affected by the supply and demand relationship.
Mid stream of the industrial chain
The middle reaches of the PCB industry chain are copper clad panel manufacturers and PCB manufacturers. Copper clad plate is made by processing raw materials such as copper foil, epoxy resin, glass fiber yarn, etc. Responsible for the three major functions of conducting, insulating, and supporting (PCB), it is the direct raw material for printed circuit boards. After etching, electroplating, and multi-layer pressing, it is made into printed circuit boards. Copper clad boards are the core material for PCB manufacturing. The proportion of China's output of copper clad laminate in the global output of copper clad laminate has continued to increase, from 47.7% in 2005 to 76.9% in 2020. Chinese Mainland has gradually become the global manufacturing center of copper clad laminate.
Data shows that in 2020, the main products in the Chinese PCB market were multi layer boards and single double-sided boards, accounting for 64%, followed by HDI boards, accounting for 17%. The proportion of IC carrier boards and rigid flexible composite boards was relatively low. Overall, compared to countries such as Japan and South Korea, the proportion of high-end printed circuit boards in China's PCB products is relatively low, and there is significant room for improvement.
Downstream of the industrial chain
At present, printed circuit boards are widely distributed in China, covering fields such as communication equipment, computers, consumer electronics, industrial control, medical, automotive electronics, military, aerospace technology, etc. And irreplaceability is one of the factors that ensure the stable development of the printed circuit board manufacturing industry. With the development of science and technology, the demand for electronic information processing of various products is gradually increasing, and emerging electronic products are constantly emerging, making printed circuit board products